Rcc liquidating corp 2016
EU member states have promoted renewable heat in order to meet mandatory national targets under the Renewable Energy Directive.24 Germany, France, Sweden, Italy and Finland and Poland were the largest producers and users in Europe in 2016.25 In Eastern Europe, the market for bioenergy in district heating continued to grow; in Lithuania, wood chips have overtaken natural gas as the major fuel in district heating schemes.26The market for wood pellets for heating grew only slowly in 2016 as the mild winter in Europe – the world’s largest market – reduced demand.27 Nonetheless, Europe accounted for some 70% of global demand for pellets for heating, led by Italy, Germany, Sweden and France.28Biogas also is used in industrial and residential heating applications.In Europe, it is used increasingly to provide heat for buildings (space) and industry (processes), often in conjunction with electricity production via CHP.29 Asia leads the world in the use of small-scale biogas digesters to produce gas for cooking and water and space heating.
Solid biomass is burned directly using traditional stoves and more modern appliances to provide heat for cooking and for space and water heating in the residential sector.
Demand in the industrial sector reached some 13.8 million tonnes in 2016.84 A similar quantity (around 14 million tonnes) of pellets went to heating markets (individual houses and district heating), notably in Italy, Germany and Sweden.85 The wood pellet heating market has grown steadily at a rate of nearly 1 million tonnes per year over a 10-year period.86The United States is the largest exporter of wood pellets.
In 2016, US manufacturers produced approximately 6.9 million tonnes of wood pellets and exported 4.8 million tonnes.87 During the first half of 2016, 85% of exported pellets were sold to the UK Drax plant.88 Canadian exports also rose 47% in 2016 to 2.5 million tonnes.89 Latvia, Europe’s largest producer, exported 1.9 million tonnes mainly to Denmark and the United Kingdom, as well as to Sweden and Italy.90Along with some large-scale plants designed to provide supply chain security to particular users (such as Drax), the pellet industry mostly comprises independent producers and is based around sawmill operations.91 For example, 142 pellet plants are operational in the United States and 58 in Canada.92 However, there are signs of industry consolidation.
Ethanol production in Brazil fell slightly, to 27 billion litres.55 In Canada, which ranked fourth globally in 2015, production declined 3% in 2016, to 1.7 billion litres.56After North and South America, Asia is the third largest regional producer of ethanol, and China is the region’s largest producer.
Ranking third for ethanol production globally in 2016, China produced an estimated 3.2 billion litres, an increase of 5% over 2015.57 About 99% of the ethanol produced annually in China is based on conventional starch-based feedstocks.